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Repetition of initial consonant sound (e.g. Safety and Security)


A direct reference to a person, event or piece of literature


Successive clauses or sentences start with the same word(s) (eg. Every...Every...Every)


Contrasting relationship between two ideas


What vocabulary and syntax does the speaker use - says something about targetgroup


Whether or not you are able to understand the intended message


The source's credibility, the speaker's/author's authority

Frame of reference

Using examples the audience will be able to recognise


A style, especially in the arts, that involves a particular set of characteristics


Deliberate exaggeration

Intended content

Is what the sender wants to communicate


Maybe it appeals to your feelings, emotions or your own life situation


Irony is a figure of speech in which there is a contradiction of expectation between what is said what is really meant


The logic used to support a claim; can also be the facts and statistics used to help support the argument.


What the sender of the speech wants us to think about


Metaphor compares two different things in a figurative sense


A quality that causes people to feel sympathy and sadness

Perceived content

Can be different from Intended Content, if the listeners are not convinced, and they understand it differently


What the sender wants to change with the text


Words or phrases are repeated throughout the text to emphasize certain facts or ideas.

Rhetorical question

The speaker raises a question, but doesn't answer it directly as he/she sees the answer as obvious.


Direct comparison. Two things are compared directly by using 'like' (e.g. A is like B.)


The main idea of the text (often timeless)



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Linking words

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Finding synonyms

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Finding antonyms

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Find a word

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Must use word

You have to use this word twice in your group discussion.

Rate words

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Make someone speak

Get someone in your group to use this word. Don’t say the word directly.

Letter jumble

The letters in this word have been jumbled. Recontruct the word.

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The words are printed on the front side of the cards and the definitions are printed on the back. You need a printer that enables printing on both sides of the paper.

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